Vitamin K 

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Vitamin K is a group of fat-soluble vitamins required for post-translational modifications of certain proteins that play a major role in blood coagulation but also in the metabolism of bones and other tissues. The use of the letter K comes from the German word for coagulation ( Koagulation ).

They are mainly synthesized by bacteria fermenting certain cheeses or vegetables, intestinal bacteria, or come from food (especially green plant foods, because related to chloroplasts). It is also found in animal fats.

There are three forms of this vitamin, which are distinguished by the nature of the carbon chain attached to quinone.

  • vitamin K1 (or phylloquinone, phytomenadione or phytonadione), only synthesized by plants; insoluble in water, it is soluble in fat and comes (in pure form) in the form of a yellow oil;
  • vitamin K2 or menaquinone, synthesized by the bacteria of the intestinal flora from the plants of the alimentary bolus.
  • Vitamin K3 or menadione, is a synthetic form of precursor of active vitamin K (converted biochemically into active vitamin K in the body). it has a biological activity 2 to 3 times higher than vitamins K1 and K2, but it is hardly used in the human diet of developed countries because of deleterious side effects.
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